Where is the reader in your text? Do you have a narrator or a narratee? David Lodge, in The Art of Fiction, explains “the narratee is any evocation of, or surrogate for, the reader of a novel within the text itself.” Does your narrator stand in for your reader? Does he or she or it draw the reader into the world you’ve created? Or do you keep your reader at arm’s distance, talking at them not to them, holding them back instead of holding their hand? Where is the reader in your text?